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  • Under svanens vinger af Peter Gjellerup Koch
    af Peter Gjellerup Koch

    Vi befinder os i et fremtidssamfund, hvor mennesker i privilegerede dele af verden kan købe sig til enhver tænkelig service. Her har manden Mod en tilsyneladende tryg og selvtilstrækkelig tilværelse. Han var engang musiker, men arbejder nu som udbyder af intimitet. Han tjener med andre ord penge på at have sex med ensomme kvinder, fortrinsvis enker, og en af hans kunder hedder Daisy. Men der findes også steder i verden, hvor de fattige, kaldet "De Andre", bor, og mange i Mods territorie ønsker for alt i verden at holde de fattige på afstand. Da Mod kommer på sporet af Daisys eftersigende afdøde mand, opfinderen af en AIDS-vaccine, Jack, begynder den orden, magteliten har opbygget med svanen som emblem, at krakelere. For noget tyder på, at Jack stadig lever, og at han har tilsluttet sig De Andre. Er han blevet tvunget i eksil, eller hvordan hænger det hele sammen?Peter Gjellerup Koch (1970-2009) var en dansk forfatter. Han debuterede som 22-årig med den anmelderroste ungdomsroman "I det syvende helvede" og skrev efterfølgende en række bøger til både unge og voksne.

  • Illustrated Synopsis of Dermatology & Sexually Transmitted Diseases-EBK af Neena Khanna
    af Neena Khanna

    Covers the course as per the competency based curriculum in an easy-to-understand manner with 'to the point synopsis' and bulleted, well-illustrated text that will help UGs to assimilate the concepts and reproduce them in the exam (less important), and put it in practice (more important). Addition of numerous clinical and histopathology images (about 800) and body and line diagrams (about 250), with several new tables and management flowcharts (about 100). Inclusion of the latest diagnostic techniques and drugs including lasers and biologicals. Summary of important diseases in synopsis for extra emphasis. Recent guidelines in management of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection. Recent WHO/NLEP Guidelines (2018) in management of leprosy.

  • Pocket Guide to Mycological Diagnosis
     

    The Pocket Guide to Mycological Diagnosis provides useful and concise information for microbiologists and professionals diagnosing the most medically relevant fungal species. Cellular and molecular techniques, immunological methods, and more accurate microscopy equipment available in most mycology laboratories now make diagnosis more routine. Furthermore, information regarding medical mycology, including identification of specific fungal pathogens, is widely available. This book helps mycologists address the emerging challenges of diagnosis.Key FeaturesSuccinct summary of fungal disease diagnosisIncludes opportunistic fungal infections that can afflict immunocompromised patientsPermits the identification of common fungal pathogensReviews antifungal drugsRelated TitlesGhannoum, M. A. & John R. Perfect, eds. Antifungal Therapy, 2nd ed. (ISBN 978-1-4987-6814-6)Miyaji, M., ed. Animal Models in Medical Mycology (ISBN 978-1-3158-9059-3)Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M., M. Shams-Ghahfarokhi and M. Rai, eds. Medical Mycology: Current Trends and Future Prospects (ISBN 978-1-4987-1421-1)

  • Pocket Guide to Mycological Diagnosis
     

    The Pocket Guide to Mycological Diagnosis provides useful and concise information for microbiologists and professionals diagnosing the most medically relevant fungal species. Cellular and molecular techniques, immunological methods, and more accurate microscopy equipment available in most mycology laboratories now make diagnosis more routine. Furthermore, information regarding medical mycology, including identification of specific fungal pathogens, is widely available. This book helps mycologists address the emerging challenges of diagnosis.Key FeaturesSuccinct summary of fungal disease diagnosisIncludes opportunistic fungal infections that can afflict immunocompromised patientsPermits the identification of common fungal pathogensReviews antifungal drugsRelated TitlesGhannoum, M. A. & John R. Perfect, eds. Antifungal Therapy, 2nd ed. (ISBN 978-1-4987-6814-6)Miyaji, M., ed. Animal Models in Medical Mycology (ISBN 978-1-3158-9059-3)Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M., M. Shams-Ghahfarokhi and M. Rai, eds. Medical Mycology: Current Trends and Future Prospects (ISBN 978-1-4987-1421-1)

  • Overcoming Barriers to Eliminate Hepatitis C, An Issue of Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, E-Book af Camilla S. Graham
    af Camilla S. Graham & Stacey B. Trooskin

    The field of HCV has changed perhaps faster than any other field in medicine. The Guest Editors have strived to create an issue that is a state-of-the-art analysis of solutions to specific challenges faced in the United States and globally in implementing HCV elimination strategies. They believe that clinicians now have the tools and road maps needed to accomplish this goal. The clinical review articles in this issue accomplish that: Using Existing Health Care Infrastructure To Expand HCV Care; Creating A Reproducible Health Economic Model To Describe The Burden Of HCV And Cost Of Treatment In Any Country; The Best Uses Of Cost-Effectiveness Models In HCV; Increasing Access To HCV Care In Corrections; Cure As Prevention Strategies For HCV In People Who Inject Drugs; Australia Will Eliminate HCV - How It Works; New York Is The First State In The US To Develop An HCV Elimination Strategy; When HCV Diagnostics Are The Barrier To Care; Key Findings From The Checs HCV Cohort Study; Strategies To Reduce HCV Reinfection Rates In People Who Inject Drugs; Strategies To Reduce HCV Reinfection Rates In Men Who Have Sex With Other Men; The Value Of Curing HCV From A Payer's Perspective; How To Expand Care Capacity In HCV; Strategies To Eliminate HCV In The HIV Coinfected Population; and The US Veteran's Administration: Lessons Learned And Best Practices For HCV Elimination.

  • Infectious Disease and Pharmacology af William E. Benitz
    - Neonatology Questions and Controversies
    af William E. Benitz

    Dr. Richard Polin's Neonatology Questions and Controversies series highlights the most challenging aspects of neonatal care, offering trustworthy guidance on up-to-date diagnostic and treatment options in the field. In each volume, renowned experts address the clinical problems of greatest concern to today's practitioners, helping you handle difficult practice issues and provide optimal, evidence-based care to every patient.Stay fully up to date in this fast-changing field with Infectious Disease and Pharmacology, an all-new volume in the series.Thorough, up-to-date content on the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, treatment, and outcomes for neonatal-perinatal infections, including necrotizing enterocolitis, neonatal HSV, and congenital Zika virus infection.The latest information on dosing of antibiotics, antivirals, and antifungals.Current coverage of therapies for neonatal gastroesophageal reflux, seizures, neuroprotection, and neonatal abstinence syndrome, as well as pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic considerations in neonatal care.Consistent chapter organization to help you find information quickly and easily.The most authoritative advice available from world-class neonatologists who share their knowledge of new trends and developments in neonatal care. Purchase each volume individually, or get the entire 7-volume set! Gastroenterology and Nutrition Hematology, Immunology and Genetics Hemodynamics and Cardiology Infectious Disease and Pharmacology New Volume! Nephrology and Fluid/Electrolyte Physiology Neurology The Newborn Lung

  • Staphylococcus aureus
    - Infections, Treatment and Risk Assessment
     

    Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha, MD in Science and Technology of the Food (1992), PhD in Tropical Diseases (1998); is biologist with main research interests in Microbiology, focusing on Bacteriology, acting on the following subjects: Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS), epidemiology, virulence factors, biofilms, enterotoxins and antimicrobial resistance. She is professor and researcher at the Department of Microbiology and Immunology of the Bioscience Institute, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, SP, Brazil; Scholarship in Research Productivity of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), an agency linked to the Ministry of Science and Tecnology (MCT), dedicated to the promotion of scientific and technological research and to the formation of human resources for research in the Brazil. Professor and mentor master's, doctoral and postdoctoral studies at the graduate program in Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Medicine of Botucatu and the Post-graduation in General Biology and Applied, Biosciences Institute, UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. She is involved in research projects as a scientific reference in Staphylococcus supported for the Sao Paulo Research Foundation - FAPESP - public foundation with the mission to foster research and the scientific and technological development of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. She is the author of more than 80 papers in international peer reviewed journals and books, and referee for about 20 journals. This book provides an overview of the different topics of staphylococcal research in recent years. Severe infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become a global health problem in the twenty-first century. Chapter One discusses MRSA as a major cause of healthcare or hospital-associated infections (HA-MRSA) in burn patients, indicated as a high-risk group for invasive staphylococcal infection. Types of MRSA, which have traditionally been tackled as exclusive agents of healthcare-associated infections, are now recognized as the causative agents of severe disease acquired in the community. The second chapter discusses these infections as they occur mainly in "e;special populations"e;. For example, we may cite people living with HIV/AIDS, older adults living in long-term care facilities and patients with chronic diseases, notably diabetes mellitus. In Chapter Three, a third epidemiological form of MRSA is discussed, which is known as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Chapter Four emphasizes the current scenario of highly adaptable clonal complexes. Among these strains, LA-MRSA belonging to clonal complex (CC) 398 are particularly important, and nosocomial infections caused by strains of CC398 are frequently reported. Confirmation of the presence of microorganisms in blood cultures is one of the most important roles of clinical microbiology laboratories. Blood culture testing - the gold standard for the diagnosis of sepsis - is able to elucidate the etiology of infection and to establish appropriate antibiotic treatment in order to improve the prognosis of septic patients and, consequently, to reduce morbidity and mortality; this is the subject discussed in Chapter Five. Nosocomial infections manifest more intensely and more frequently in newborns when compared to children or adults. Staphylococcus aureus infections in newborns is discussed in Chapter Six. Staphylococcus spp. are an important cause of peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis (PD), frequently requiring change of the dialysis technique and causing an important impact on the mortality of PD patients, another matter of great importance which is discussed in Chapter Seven. Finally, the epidemiology and experimental evidence that S. aureus and its products, the superantigens, are directly related to the development or exacerbation of autoimmune diseases, which are discussed in Chapter Eight. This book provides an excellent overview of the different applications of staphylococcal research for clinicians, researchers and students who intend to address these issues, and permits continued high-quality research involving these important pathogens.Target Audience:The book provides an excellent overview in the different applicative fields staphylococcal research for clinicians, researchers and students.

  • Measles
    - Epidemiology and Control of Measles in the Gweru Urban District in Zimbabwe
     

    Measles is a disease of public health importance that is associated with high mortality and morbidity, particularly in developing countries. In recent years, widespread application of the measles vaccine among children has led to a decline in the morbidity and mortality attributed to measles. In the city of Gweru in Zimbabwe, research was carried on the epidemiology and control of measles. Due to these studies, a seven year multiple dose measles vaccination intervention was carried out in Gweru from 1990-1996. The results of this intervention played a significant role in the debate that led to the adoption of the WHO/UNICEF current policy to use multiple dose measles vaccination strategies to control measles in developing countries. One of the critical lessons that has arisen from the Gweru city measles operational research effort has been that fairly low cost, simple research makes a great difference in providing insight into the epidemiology and control of endemic disease conditions locally.

  • Inflammasomes
    - Mechanism of Action, Regulation and Role in Disease
     

    The term inflammasome was coined over a decade ago to describe the molecular platform activated by pathogens or stressor molecules where inflammatory caspases are triggered and cleavage of IL-1b takes place. Inflammasome regulation is critical for the maintenance of homeostasis: an imbalance in this fine-tuning is responsible for the establishment of infectious, autoimmune, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. This book examines the activation and function of inflammasomes during fungal infections; inflammasome involvement in carcinogenesis; and the role of inflammasomes in protozoan infections.

  • Superbugs - Clostridium Difficile and Klebsiella Pneumoniae
    - Recognition, Prevention and Treatment
     

    The first section of this book discusses Clostridium difficile Infections (CDI). There is no consensus on the definition of severe CDI, since it varies depending on the authors or clinical practice guidelines consulted. Severe CDI can be defined as an episode of CDI with one or more specific signs and symptoms of severe colitis or a complicated clinical course, with significant systemic toxicity and shock, requiring ICU admission or a colectomy, or resulting in death. The chapters in this section examine the risk factors for the development of severe CDI; study the advances in fecal microbiota transplantation; and provide management strategies of CDI in intensive care units. Section Two of this book provides research on Klebsiella pneumoniae infections. Klebsiella pneumoniae producing KPC-type carbapenemase (KPC-Kp) is an emerging problem epidemiologically, diagnostically, and therapeutically. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae have emerged as a class of pathogens that pose a significant threat to patients admitted to healthcare facilities. The first chapter of this section reviews the molecular epidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase. The following chapters discuss KPC-Kp; Klebsiella pneumoniae brain abscess in adults; and the causes of Ankylosing spondylitis and Crohn's disease.

  • Super-Spreading in Infectious Diseases
     

    As one of the biological factors that most powerfully impacted history, infectious diseases continue to be a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. At least two major factors are making infectious diseases assume more important roles than ever before. One of these is the increasing ability of certain microorganisms, normally limited to other species, to cross or jump across the species barrier and become human pathogens. The second factor - our increasing and unprecedented global mobility which has made traveling between any two remote locations on the planet possible in less than 24 hours. As a result, a local outbreak anywhere in the world becomes a global concern. A significant challenge that is shared by most (if not all) infectious diseases is our insufficient understanding of the dynamic host-pathogen interaction. In particular, one of the gaps in visualizing our interaction with microorganisms stems from the fact that historically, pathogen transmission in populations was assumed to be homogeneous, with infected individuals having approximately equal opportunities to infect secondary contacts. However, in what became known as "e;the 20/80 rule"e;, an increasing number of studies and observations point towards a small number of individuals (20%) that are responsible for most (80%) transmission events in a population. This minority of individuals who infect a disproportionately large number of secondary contacts has become known as "e;super-spreaders"e;. The phenomenon of super-spreading lies at the core of understanding the biology of microorganisms and their ability to cause outbreaks, and is instrumental for developing and implementing preventive and therapeutic strategies. This book proposes to examine super-spreading in infectious diseases. Super-spreading dates back as far as Typhoid Mary, the first documented example, and it was documented for most microorganisms, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Plasmodium and Schistosoma species, HIV, hepatitis C, influenza virus, Ebola virus, rhinoviruses, Escherichia coli, West Nile virus, and the SARS coronavirus. A thought-provoking find from the SARS pandemic was that in the absence of super-spreading events, most infected individuals caused very few (if any) secondary contacts, but a low number of super-spreaders fueled the global outbreak. Super-spreading was described in human, animal, and plant hosts, and it exists at the level of the individual as well as at that of the species. One of the common denominators of super-spreading events is that they are virtually always identified only retroactively, as part of epidemiologic investigations. There is, however, a great interest and an acute need in being able to prospectively predict super-spreading, as this would considerably improve the opportunities to prevent, control, and limit outbreaks. A fundamentally important and far-reaching topic in infectious diseases, the study of super-spreading holds key implications for managing epidemics and pandemics, and promises to fill an important gap in microbiology, medicine, public health, agriculture, animal sciences, and biodefense.

  • National Strategy and Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria
     

    The discovery of antibiotics in the early 20th century fundamentally transformed human and veterinary medicine. Antibiotics now save millions of lives each year in the United States and around the world. The rise of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, however, represents a serious threat to public health and the economy. If the effectiveness of antibiotics (drugs that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria) is lost, we will no longer be able to reliably and rapidly treat bacterial infections, including bacterial pneumonias, foodborne illnesses, and healthcare-associated infections. As more strains of bacteria become resistant to an ever-larger number of antibiotics, our drug choices have become increasingly limited and more expensive and, in some cases, nonexistent. In a world with few effective antibiotics, modern medical advances such as surgery, transplants, and chemotherapy may no longer be viable due to the threat of infection. This book examines the national strategy and plan for combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  • Current Status of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Periodontal Disease and During Periodontal Therapy
     

    Periodontal diseases are chronic infectious diseases characterized by a destructive inflammatory process affecting the supporting tissues of the tooth. Numerous bacterial species have been isolated from subgingival plaque, which are closely associated with disease onset and progression. At the same time, there is strong evidence that destructive processes occurring as part of the host inflammatory response are responsible for the majority of the hard- and soft-tissue breakdown leading to the clinical signs of periodontitis. The characteristic clinical signs of chronic periodontitis occur mainly as a result of activation of host-derived immune and inflammatory defense mechanism. IL-1 and TNF induce expression of other mediators that amplify the inflammatory response, such as prostaglandins, and lead to production of lytic enzymes and stimulate the production of chemokines. Depending on its function, the cytokine have been classified into those which initiate and maintain inflammatory process, labelled as pro-inflammatory cytokines and those which exert an inhibitory effect on the immunologic response. These negative regulators, categorized as anti-inflammatory cytokines, include IL -4 and IL -10, inhibitors such as IL -1 receptor, antagonist soluble IL -1 and TNF receptors that act as a competitive blockers under pathologic conditions such as those that occur in periodontal disease. Noteworthy is the fact that cytokines which play an important role in inflammatory responses are also prominent regulators of normal tissue homeostasis. In fact, mRNA expression of cytokines that have been associated with periodontitis was constitutively detected, to some extent, in clinically healthy gingival tissues. The complex interaction of the cytokines at the molecular level is yet to be fully mapped. Additionally, further research pertaining to the other accessory arms of the cytokine network, such as the tissue metalloproteinases, the components involved in the acute phase of immunity as well as wound healing will augment the future of treating human periodontal disease via immunotherapy by modulating/ controlling the key pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  • Ebola and Epidemics
    - Ethical Dimensions to Public Health Emergencies
     

    Briefly during fall 2014, many U.S. citizens feared that the United States would join affected countries in western Africa in confronting a serious domestic outbreak of the deadly Ebola virus disease. In response to the arrival of Ebola on U.S. shores, federal and state public health attention and intervention increased. Some responses in the United States-such as calls for travel bans, quarantine of health care workers, and stigmatization of and discrimination against western Africans (or anyone thought to be associated with Ebola)-merit scrutiny, both in relation to this ongoing epidemic and to prepare for future public health emergencies. This book provides an overview of the ethical challenges related to the Ebola epidemic and endorses ongoing participation of the United States in the global response for both ethical and prudential reasons. It examines basics of the Ebola virus; discusses prevention of the spread of Ebola; and provides insight on the legal issues involved.

  • Behcet's Disease
    - Progress in Recent Years and Unmet Needs for the Future
     

    Behcet's disease is a chronic relapsing inflammatory disease of unknown etiology involving multiple organs. Along with blindness, other bodily functions are greatly affected by this disease; conditions of the vascular, intestinal and central nervous systems are usually life threatening and require aggressive therapy. Recently, significant progress has been made in several areas of this disease. The introduction of biological agents (such as anti-TNF) have had a positive impact on the effectiveness of treatments. However, there are still a number of unmet needs in various fields of this disease. Despite this, there remains a number of unaddressed issues concerning the treatments of this disease. Several genes have been shown to be associated with this disease, in addition to HLA-B51. Abnormalities in several subsets of T helper cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Behcet's disease. Recent advances in the field of innate immunity have shed light on the new aspects of Behcet's disease; that is, this disease has both autoimmunity and autoinflammatory aspects. On the other hand, there are still controversies as to the diagnosis and treatment of recalcitrant manifestations of the disease. This publication highlights the most recent understanding of Behcet's disease and raises several unanswered questions in both basic to clinical treatment of this ailment. The contents of this book are primarily based on the most up-to-date results of research programs sponsored by the Japanese government as well as findings from Korean researchers. In particular, novel classification for neurological involvement (which has been discovered in Japan) led to the establishment of diagnostic criteria and treatment recommendation. Thus, this publication brings forth useful information for a variety of specialists who are involved in the management of this intractable disease.

  • Ebola
    - Essentials, Response Efforts, and Prevention Issues
     

    The Ebola virus is named after the Ebola River, near where the virus was discovered in 1976 in Zaire, now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). It is in the filovirus family, so called because of its filamentous shape. EVD is also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever. The disease sometimes causes hemorrhage (i.e., bleeding) from body openings, but this symptom is not consistent. Five strains of Ebola virus have been identified. This book discusses the essentials, response efforts, and prevention issues involved with the Ebola virus.

  • Campylobacter Infections
    - Epidemiology, Clinical Management and Prevention
     

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial enteritis in the world and this zoonotic disease is principally transmitted by food and water. Campylobacter infections are characterized by several symptoms such as watery/bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, headache, nausea and vomiting which may persist for few days. Medical treatment may be conventional, often symptomatic, sometimes associated with the use of antibiotics in some severe cases. This book discusses the epidemiology, clinical management and prevention of Campylobacter infections.

  • Bacterial Meningitis
    - Clinical Characteristics, Modes of Transmission and Treatment Options
     

    Despite advances in medical care, improvement of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapy and worldwide immunization programs, bacterial meningitis is still responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. A worldwide reported mortality rate from bacterial meningitis continue to be high, ranging between 2% to 30%. Twenty percent of survivors develop neurological sequelae. During the last decades, the disease epidemiology has changed dramatically in the countries that implemented the conjugate vaccines against the most common meningeal pathogens. Also in developing countries, gradual changes have been observed in the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis that are unrelated to the introduction of new vaccines, but are partly due to the improvement of living conditions. This book examines the modes of transmission of bacterial meningitis, as well as the clinical characteristics, and treatment options.

  • Mediastinal Infections
    - Clinical Diagnosis, Surgical and Alternative Treatments
     

    The way mediastinal infections are developed is still a therapeutic challenge for physicians and surgeons around the globe. The purpose of this book is to clarify infection origins and pathways of spread to the mediastinum, and how the septic process perpetuates under different circumstances with up to date evidence based on diagnostic criteria and management protocols. A substantial thorough review of the different types of mediastinal infections are discussed, such as descending necrotizing, ascending necrotizing, post-operative, and chronic fibrosing mediastinitis, all demonstrated by diagnostic imaging and illustrations that describe surgical techniques in a step by step approach. It is intended for cardiac and thoracic surgeons, pneumologists, radiologists, infectologists and intensive care physicians as a guide based on the most recent literature, serves as a revised compendium for this rare type of infectious entity. The initial chapters elaborate in a descriptive and illustrative way the mediastinal anatomy and its pathways for dissemination from the cervical, sub-diaphragmatic and trans-sternal origins, to understand how the original infection worked its way into the spaces. This is followed by a directed review on the ensuing septic process and their management in the different mentioned clinical scenarios, each followed by a systematic approach on management, surgical and alternative treatments when applicable, to clarify the concepts explained in the various types of mediastinal infections.

  • Gonorrhea and Viral Hepatitis
    - Risk Factors, Clinical Management and Potential Complications
     

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) represent a global problem that has an impact on the reproductive and sexual health worldwide. The most common causative agents of the STIs are Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria (N.) gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum and Trichomonas vaginalis. The World Health Organization estimated that these four main curable STIs cause approximately 498.9 million new cases worldwide in 2008. STIs can lead to serious consequences including health complications, chronic disease and high morbidity. Moreover, the economic costs associated with treatment of these diseases are immense. Furthermore, the resistance to antibiotics, in particular in N. gonorrhoeae, has emerged in recent years. For these reasons, STIs represent a serious current public health problem. This book discusses several STI's including gonorrhea, hepatitis C, and hepatitis B.

  • Chlamydia
    - Prevalence, Pathogenesis and Prevention
     

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a heterogeneous group of communicable diseases, whose only common element is sharing of sexual route as a mechanism of acquisition. With nearly 450 million cases detected annually, STIs represent a priority health problem worldwide, because of the impact they have on the physical and mental health of people who suffer, as the complications and consequences that can result and their relation to increased transmissibility of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Clinical manifestations, in most cases, involve the genital area and mucous but sometimes, cause systemic affectation. Infection due to Chlamydia trachomatis is already the most frequent STI of global health significance. Its epidemiological interest has increased markedly in recent years because the majority of infections run an asymptomatic course which can lead to serious complications, especially in young women. This book discusses the prevalence, pathogenesis and the prevention of chlamydia.

  • African American Caregivers
    - Seasons of Care Practice and Policy Perspectives for Social Workers and Human Service Professionals
     

    Caregiving is a long standing tradition in the African American community. This book provides historical and contemporary insight into caregiving. The authors intertwine the African American struggle for dignity and social justice with their discussion of various aspects of caregiving. An overarching theme of the book is the resilience of African Americans in carrying out their caregiving responsibilities. Although disparities are a part of the caregiving landscape, the authors individually and collectively present a rhythm of caregiving that engages the reader in caregiving across the life span. This in depth look at the African American caregiving experience exposes readers to a broader lens, thus avoiding the often overly simplistic view or culturally limited view of their caregiving experience. Caregiving is not limited to any particular group-the old and the young are a part of the caregiving experience that is discussed in this book. The book is a collaboration between social work programs at Historically Black Colleges and Universities---Howard University (Washington, DC) and Alabama A&M University (Normal, Alabama). The book includes a wide range of content, from caring for older persons with dementia to younger disabled children. The authors/contributors also range in age and experience as caregivers. All of the authors have extensive experience working with African Americans. These are authentic accounts of the caregiving experience within the African American community.

  • Environment and Hope
    - Improving Health, Reducing AIDS and Promoting Food Security in the World
     

    This book represents a body of work performed by students from a diverse set of disciplines and a variety of universities in the United States and Santiago, Chile. Each project was developed by the students to "e;break the cycle of social, economic and environmental health disparities."e; This book contains the projects from the eighth annual 'Break the Cycle' program. "e;Break the Cycle"e; projects are designed to raise awareness among the students of the reality of environmental health disparities and its impact on the world around them. Although students may feel daunted by the magnitude of the challenge, they need to know that even the relatively small project they develop can make a big difference and becomes part of an inexorable process towards making the world a better place for all of its citizens. The dictum that "e;It is not incumbent upon you to finish the task, yet, you are not free to desist from it"e; empowers the students to take on a challenge for a lifetime and beyond. We believe that the lessons the students learned from their own projects, from working with the other students and from appreciating the difference that each little effort can make, goes significantly towards cultivating our future leaders; these are the people who will carry on the work and make the world a better place in their time.

  • Leprosy
    - Epidemiology, Treatment Strategies and Current Challenges in Research
     

    Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease that affects the skin and peripheral nerves; its causative agent is the obligate intracellular bacillus Mycobacterium leprae. The etiological diagnosis of the disease in its paucibacillary (PB) form still needs to be improved, because the bacillus is not yet cultivable. This book discusses the current challenges in the research of leprosy, as well as the epidemiology and treatment strategies available.

  • Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)
    - Transmission, Diagnosis and Role in the Development of Cancers
     

    The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), also known as Human Herpes Virus 4, has been identified and described as the etiological agent of infectious mononucleosis. It is the first human virus found to be implicated in oncogenesis. EBV is associated with a number of biologically diverse cancers, mainly lymphoproliferations of B-cell origin. With the development of basic research and clinical medicine, new ideas related to the pathogenesis and clinical aspects of EBV-associated diseases have arisen recently. A significant progress in the number of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantations performed worldwide, involving high-risk patients, has contributed to an increase in the development of EBV-associated malignant post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders. In the stem cell transplant setting, a post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder has in most cases the nature of a secondary cancer. Apart from post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders, other types of lymphoproliferative disorders are recognized and presented in this book.

  • Bacteremia
    - Risk Factors, Treatment and Potential Complications
     

    Expert Committees have developed antimicrobial protocols for the prevention of potential complications derived from bacteremia of oral origin, such as infective endocarditis. These preventive protocols have subsequently been revised and modified based on the extensive research that has been performed in this field, including studies on the efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis in the prevention of bacteremia of oral origin. This book provides insight on the potential implications of bacteremia of oral origin, and prevention of these potential implications with antibiotics and antiseptics. The book also discusses a rare cause of bateremia known as Lactobacillemia.

  • Sepsis
    - Diagnosis, Management and Health Outcomes
     

    The book discusses multiple aspects of sepsis syndrome seen in all age groups of patients and by all specialties in medicine. The syndrome is the aftermath of the dissemination of an infectious process into and through the blood stream. This allows the bacteria, bacterial products and cytokines to reach multiple organs, resulting in their dysfunction. In spite of the advances in supportive care and antibiotic therapy, the outcome of sepsis has not changed significantly. The inadequacies in the current diagnostic modalities and conflicting inconclusive results of investigations on novel treatments have contributed significantly to the lack of progress in the management of sepsis. Antibiotic overuse in and outside the intensive care unit driven by the lack of microbiological data and definitive diagnosis lends to the creation and transmission of antibiotic resistant bacteria, which has added to the challenges and poor outcomes of sepsis syndrome. The nine chapters in this book are authored by experts in various aspects of sepsis from North America, South America, Europe and Asia. State of the art information is provided in the areas of pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis and management of sepsis. Each chapter has a contribution on the role of various evidence-based preventive strategies to reduce the incidence and subsequent poor outcomes of sepsis syndrome.

  • Viral Infections
    - Causes, Treatment Options and Potential Complications
     

    Viral infection is a disease caused by microorganisms, which invade a living cell and use its mechanisms to reproduce. Viruses need to colonize a host organism in order to fulfill its vital functions because it lacks the biochemical organizations that replication requires. This book discusses several topics that include viral infections in obstetrics and gynecology; the management of HIV infection by Chinese medicine; antiviral activity of lactoferrin; and antiviral effects of phytochemicals of the Mediterranean medicinal plants.

  • Journey through the World of Malaria
     

    Our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of the malaria parasite has accumulated over the years with the advent of genomic knowledge playing a crucial role. Although great strides have been made in the field of malaria research, malaria still remains one of the most important public health issues in the world. Years ago, malaria was eradicated in some countries but global warming is playing a part in the spectacular re-emergence of malaria in some of these countries. There is still no effective vaccine, although some research has provided interesting data and anti-malaria drug resistance is the time bomb that has the potential of detonating the field of malaria research. Funder fatigue is now derailing the progress made over the years, which makes the field of malaria research look a bit gloomy. This book reviews the most important findings associated with malaria research over the couple of years with a timely overview. The topics covered include historical perspectives of the field of Malariology, life cycle of the parasite, recent advances in the epidemiology of malaria, pathogenesis with sub topics such as the parasite and immune system, virulence factors and clinical manifestations analyzed in detail. The updated antimalarial drug treatment, development and resistance are also discussed in detail. Finally, the social and economic burdens of malaria are looked at and various potential control strategies are put forward. This book will be essential to everyone interested in infectious diseases.

  • Antimalarial Drug Research and Development
     

    Malaria-like febrile illnesses have been described since Hippocrates as fevers that were periodic and associated with marshes and swamps. The word "e;malaria"e; comes from the Italian "e;mal'aria"e; for "e;bad airs"e;. Malaria is transmitted to humans via the bite of the infected female mosquito of anopheles species. Malaria can exist, in a mild form that is most commonly associated with flu-like symptoms; fever, vomiting, and general malaise. Most disease cases are found in the poorest countries; tropical Africa, Latin America, Southern Asia and Oceania. More concern is being given now to malaria even in countries where there is a low risk of infection due to the phenomena of global warming which is significantly increasing. In this book, the authors present current research in the study of antimalarial drug research and developments. Topics discussed in this compilation includ the antimalarial atovaquone prodrugs based on enzyme models with molecular orbital calculations approach; new quinoline-based multiple ligands in antimalarial drug development; new molecular scaffolds as potential therapeutic agents to combat antimalarial resistance; and PfCRT mediates sensitivity of chloroquine-resistant P. Falciparum to diamidines.

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