Queen breeding and geneticsaf Eigil Holm
Breeders and producers of queens need a handbook which describes the background of their work. It can only be done if ou know the techniques of rearing queens and judging the results. You must know the genetics of the bees, too, because it enables you to plan the maintenance and improvements of your stock. The aim of this book is to help the practical people who rear queens. The author has written books and articles of beekeeping since 1983, see www.eigilholm.dk.Content of Queen Breeding and Bee Geneticspreface 51. production of queens 6The basis of queen production 6Methods of queen rearing 7Grafting 8The calendar 8The cell builder 9The breeder colony 10Grafting tools 10Grafting procedure 11Transfer to the cell builder 12Incubation 12How to obtain young bees 14Marking of queens 14Transport cage and candy 16Shipping 172. mating nucs 18How to use the nuc 19Continous management of a nuc 21Clearing after the mating season 213. alternative metods 221. The queen production and breeding of Poul Erik Sørensen 222. Queen right cell builder 243. The starting box method 254. mating stations 26Organization of the queen breeding 26Drone producers 28Placing of the mating nucs 29One-comb nuc 30How to remove drones 31Transport 31How to treat the mated queens 315. instrumental insemination 33Types of insemination 33Insemination in genetic research 33On techniques of insemination 33Drones and their sperm 346. how to get better bees 38The ABC of breeding 381. The aims of breeding 382. Judgment 383. Selection 384. Crossing 396. Maintenance 397. aims of breeding and judgment 40Marks used for judging bee colonies 41Comments to the marks 42Marks of the year 43How to use the marks 43Other judgments 43Judges 44Environment and judgment 448. queen breeding and genetics 45The genetic consequences of the mating behaviour 46Congregational areas 479. how to make a pedigree 48The danish breeders pedigree 4910. bee cytology and genetics 50The cell 51The genes 51The anatomy of the gene 53The genome and how to read it 53Microsatellites 55Maternel and parentel heritage 56Mitochondria 5711. meiosis and genes 58Dominant and recessive alleles 58Mating and segregation 60Mating in populations 62Co-dominance 62Mendel’s firs law 6212. mendel’s second law 64Segregation of two gene pairs 64Why are bees different 66Linkage and cross-over 66Mendel´s second law 6813. sex alleles, additive genes, nature and nurture 69Effect of the number of sex alleles 70Additive genes 71Mutations 71Inbreeding and heterosis 73Nature and nurture 73The relative importance of genes and environment 74Heritability 7414. bee races and evolution 75The origin of races 76Nature is changing 77Races 78The fate of the races 78How to use the races 79Morphological characters of races 80Genetic examination of races 8015. breeding 82The Buckfast bee 82Combination Breeding, an overview 82Selection 83Crossing strategy 83Testing 84Maintenance of stocks 85Stocks for drone production 86Closed populations 8616. A German breeding system 8717. the future 89litterature 90INDEX 91
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