Queen breeding and genetics af Eigil Holm E-bog, PDF

Queen breeding and genetics

af
(Udvid)

Breeders and producers of queens need a handbook which describes the background of their work. It can only be done if ou know the techniques of rearing queens and judging the results. You must know the genetics of the bees, too, because it enables you to plan the maintenance and improvements of your stock. The aim of this book is to help the practical people who rear queens.
The author has written books and articles of beekeeping since 1983, see www.eigilholm.dk.
Content of Queen Breeding and Bee Genetics
preface 5
1. production of queens 6
The basis of queen production 6
Methods of queen rearing 7
Grafting 8
The calendar 8
The cell builder 9
The breeder colony 10
Grafting tools 10
Grafting procedure 11
Transfer to the cell builder 12
Incubation 12
How to obtain young bees 14
Marking of queens 14
Transport cage and candy 16
Shipping 17
2. mating nucs 18
How to use the nuc 19
Continous management of a nuc 21
Clearing after the mating season 21
3. alternative metods 22
1. The queen production and breeding of
Poul Erik Sørensen 22
2. Queen right cell builder 24
3. The starting box method 25
4. mating stations 26
Organization of the queen breeding 26
Drone producers 28
Placing of the mating nucs 29
One-comb nuc 30
How to remove drones 31
Transport 31
How to treat the mated queens 31
5. instrumental insemination 33
Types of insemination 33
Insemination in genetic research 33
On techniques of insemination 33
Drones and their sperm 34
6. how to get better bees 38
The ABC of breeding 38
1. The aims of breeding 38
2. Judgment 38
3. Selection 38
4. Crossing 39
6. Maintenance 39
7. aims of breeding and judgment 40
Marks used for judging bee colonies 41
Comments to the marks 42
Marks of the year 43
How to use the marks 43
Other judgments 43
Judges 44
Environment and judgment 44
8. queen breeding and genetics 45
The genetic consequences of the mating
behaviour 46
Congregational areas 47
9. how to make a pedigree 48
The danish breeders pedigree 49
10. bee cytology and genetics 50
The cell 51
The genes 51
The anatomy of the gene 53
The genome and how to read it 53
Microsatellites 55
Maternel and parentel heritage 56
Mitochondria 57
11. meiosis and genes 58
Dominant and recessive alleles 58
Mating and segregation 60
Mating in populations 62
Co-dominance 62
Mendel’s firs law 62
12. mendel’s second law 64
Segregation of two gene pairs 64
Why are bees different 66
Linkage and cross-over 66
Mendel´s second law 68
13. sex alleles, additive genes,
nature and nurture 69
Effect of the number of sex alleles 70
Additive genes 71
Mutations 71
Inbreeding and heterosis 73
Nature and nurture 73
The relative importance of genes and
environment 74
Heritability 74
14. bee races and evolution 75
The origin of races 76
Nature is changing 77
Races 78
The fate of the races 78
How to use the races 79
Morphological characters of races 80
Genetic examination of races 80
15. breeding 82
The Buckfast bee 82
Combination Breeding, an overview 82
Selection 83
Crossing strategy 83
Testing 84
Maintenance of stocks 85
Stocks for drone production 86
Closed populations 86
16. A German breeding system 87
17. the future 89
litterature 90
INDEX 91


  • Sprog:
  • Engelsk
  • ISBN:
  • 9788789446110
  • Udgivet:
  • 25. april 2010

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